Citations and Allusions in the Hebrew Bible


The notion that texts within the Hebrew Bible refer to each other and that neglect of such references leads to an imperfect understanding of a given text has garnered much attention in recent years. There are substantial bodies of both methodological debate and case studies. For all that, core problems wait to be settled with at least a relative consensus. Among them are the differentiation between citations, allusions, and similar textual references on the one hand and affinities between texts induced by different factors on the other hand; criteria for discerning textual references, and their strength relative to each other; categories for a detailed description of textual references; and a rigid scrutiny regarding modes of marking citations. As concerns case studies, a sustained effort is needed to collect and compare the various scholarly results. The time is ripe for bringing together scholars working in the field in order to critically examine what has been achieved so far, and to draw attention to pressing questions which have remained unresolved heretofore. The research group shall be a platform to do that. It will focus on cases of citations and allusions, that is, on actual, intentional references from one text to another.


Citation, Allusion, Inner-Biblical Back-Referencing, Intertextuality, Methodology

Current Term:



Joachim J. Krause
Ruhr University Bochum

Friedrich-Emanuel Focken
Heidelberg University

Walter Bührer
Ruhr University Bochum

Member Area

Sofia 2024 Call for Papers

In search of citations, allusions, and cognate phenomena, and pursuing the set of questions stated in the unit’s general program, for the 2024 annual conference we propose to focus on the Former Prophets. Hence, we welcome papers dealing with textual references from or to a given text of the Former Prophets, or within that corpus. While contributions may put their main emphasis either on the case at hand or methodological conclusions to be drawn from it, both aspects should be covered. Next to invited papers, there will be a sufficient number of slots for proposed contributions.